Stabilized Radioactive Fallout Clouds Shown a Few Minutes After the Explosions, with distances that spherical fallout particles having diameters of 40, 50, and 100 microns fall in 8 hours.6. Once any bureaucracy issues dangerously faulty equipment or instructions, it rarely corrects them except under pressure. If 40 cubic feet per minute (40 cfm) per person of outdoor air is supplied and properly distributed, then (even if the outdoor air is at a temperature which is typical of the hottest hours during a heat wave in a hot, humid area of the United States) the effective temperature of the shelter air will be increased no more than 2 degrees F by the shelter occupants' body heat and water vapor. As proved by habitability tests in Florida and elsewhere, a KAP or Directional Fan must be used, even with two crawlway entry/exits. When the ventilation rate is low, smoking should not be permitted, even near the exhaust opening. The instructions given in this book could be photographed, reproduced, and mass-distributed by newspapers. The doors at both ends were open. The human nose and other air passages can filter out almost all particles 10 micrometers [10 microns] [or larger] in diameter, and about 95 percent of those exceeding 5 micrometers." To increase the flow of air through a shelter, while fanning the occupants: Have two or more occupants sitting inside the shelter each use a fan of the size described above to fan the air so as to increase its velocity in the direction in which air already is flowing through the shelter. Register your storm shelter. Two persons preparing to use a Bedsheet Fan see sketch) should stand facing each other, at right angles to the desired direction of air flow', with the cloth extended horizontally between them. Thanks to Congressman Ike Skelton, Democrat of Missouri and strong civil defense advocate, in 1981 I was able to demonstrate Directional Fanning to Louis Giuffrida, at that time the Director of FEMA. plywood nailed to a single board. With many more pairs of Bedsheet Fanners working, enough air for at least 10,000 occupants could be "sucked" into this mine through one of its 17 x 20-foot portals, fanned down a corridor to the far "dead end" of the mine, then fanned through across corridor, and finally fanned back out through the corridor that has the second truck-sized portal at its outer end. As part of Oak Ridge National Laboratory's participation in Defense Nuclear Agency's "Dice Throw" 1978 blast test, I built two Russian Pole- Covered Trench Shelters. In freezing weather, a belowground shelter covered with damp earth may continue to absorb almost all of its occupants' body heat for many days and stay unpleasantly cold. With only a 6-inch-diameter air-exhaust opening, not nearly enough air can flow naturally in warm weather through this crowded shelter's room (only about 39 inches wide by 34 inches high). FEMA provides hazard mitigation funding to eligible states, tribes, and territories that, in turn, provide the funding to local governments to assist in reducing overall risk to people and property. The air should be fanned out of the shelter in the direction in which the air is naturally flowing. When the skin is bare, moving air can evaporate sweat more efficiently for effective cooling. The pendulum-like, flap-valve pump was swung from two cabinet hinges (not shown) screwed onto a board. Unless most of the occupants body heat and water vapor from sweat are removed by air circulated through a typical shelter, the heat-humidity conditions will become increasingly dangerous in warm or hot weather. In warm weather, chimney-type natural ventilation usually is inadequate for most high-protection factor shelters that are fully occupied for days. Persons out of this air stream will not be adequately cooled. When an attack is expected, a shelter, occupied or soon to be occupied, should be kept as cool as practical by pumping large volumes of outdoor air through it when the outdoor air is cooler than the shelter air. A 2-Handled Directional Fan of the size illustrated (14 in. She was aware of the high-risk of tornadoes in this area, and they had a storm shelter installed in their garage. To pump more air, block off the upper part of the doorway with cloth, cardboard, plywood, etc.. to prevent air from flowing back in the wrong direction through the upper part of the doorway. FEMA does not endorse, approve, certify or recommend any contractors, individuals, firms or products. This should allow you room to get out of your shelter in the event of a direct hit. x 16 in. A 6 foot KAP tested for durability at Oak Ridge. 4. This will help eliminate any water or debri from getting inside. How long to order and install a shelter? Numerous tests have shown that the hazards from fallout particles carried into shelters by unfiltered ventilating air are minor compared to the dangers from inadequate ventilation. Contractors, individuals, or firms shall not claim they or their products are "FEMA approved" or "FEMA certified.". In the aforementioned Navy test, a high speed, electric ventilating pump and the frictional resistance of pipes and filters raised the temperature of the air supplied to the shelter by 3 degrees F. Under extreme heat wave conditions, an air supply 3 degrees F hotter than outdoor air could be disastrous especially if considerably less than 40 cfm per occupant is supplied, and body heat raises the air temperature several additional degrees. Only very widely available materials are needed. Then Dr. Yin and his specialists began using their air-velocity meters to measure the volumes of air that these simple devices could pump. In a trench shelter, where air is pumped in at one end and flows out the other, good distribution is assured.In larger shelters, such as basements, ventilating air will move from the air-supply opening straight to the air exhaust opening. If waterproof tape is available, cover the parts that you will grip with sweaty hands, thus preventing dampening and softening the cardboard. Before a board was inserted, its edges were rounded. To increase the flow of air through a shelter, while fanning the occupants: Have two or more occupants sitting inside the shelter each use a fan of the size described above to fan the air so as to increase its velocity in the direction in which air already is flowing through the shelter. LockA locked padlock How do you breathe? Breathe in the Midst of a Storm (73) Everyday we start Anew. 6.5, except that each lacked a trapdoor and filter. Food/Water If y­ou're caught in a storm while camping or hiking, finding a safe shelter may be difficult. If your bunker is for possible ' wartime ' survival you should look a NBC/HEPA air filtration, as well as the ability to close down intake and exhaust in an emergency. We do not offer financing, but many banks around the country finance storm shelter loans for under 2% interest rate (APR) or we can refer you to one if you don't already have one in mind. Here are the documents you should keep together in a safe place: Home deed; Tax information; Insurance documents; Birth certificates; Medical papers; Banking information C: A Homemade Fallout Meter, the KFM, App. Fortunately, most of the very small and tiniest fallout particles would not be deposited for days to months, by which time radioactive decay would have made them much less dangerous. Then earth was piled onto the parts of the film strips that were lying on the ground, to secure them. Then, if a need arises to stop or restrict ventilation, the shelter can be closed for longer than could be done safely otherwise. (Placing earth rolls - see page 150 - around the sides of an earth-loaded car provides better, more secure side shielding, but requires more materials and work.). Tens of millions of Russians have been taught to build such shelters. Some American official instructions for building expedient shelters have been slowly improved over the decades; the best are given in the June 1985 edition of Protection in the Nuclear Age, one of the Federal Emergency Management Agency's widely available free booklets. If you are thinking of getting a tornado shelter installed, or already have one, storage is a very important part of your shelter. If it is windy outside, even some sand-like fallout particles may be blown into a shelter with large ventilation openings. Directional Fans are very unlikely to be damaged by blast effects severe enough to wreck bladed fans or other fixed ventilation devices placed at or near air-intake or air-exhaust openings, but not severe enough to injure shelter occupants. Pulling a Small. Subsequently, they were improved for fallout protection but were made much less habitable by Soviet civil defense specialists. 6.1. 1: The Dangers from Nuclear Weapons: Myths and Facts, Ch. However, anything "leeward" (shielding you from the direction of the wind) of the storm will be better than nothing. DIRECTIONAL FANNING TO VENTILATE SHELTERS. (If the air-exhaust opening of your small shelter is much larger than that shown in the sketches, block part of it off to reduce it to approximately this 24-inch-high by 20-inch-wide size, for more effective use with this fan.) A Winter Storm Watch means a storm could produce heavy snow, sleet, or freezing rain. The air inside is "dead", remarkably still, because the only openings are two truck-sized portals on one side of the mine. Simple means for preventing skin diseases and infections-means proved very effective by jungle natives and by our best trained jungle infantrymen in World War II - are described in the Prevention of Skin Diseases section of Chapter 12. Whenever practical, directionally fan the air in the same direction that the air is naturally flowing through the shelter. C. ADDITIONAL ADVANTAGES OF DIRECTIONAL FANS. ° Move the air gently, so as not to raise its temperature. A: Instructions for Six Expedient Fallout Shelters, App. A pair of Directional Fanners get ready to make a power stroke by leaning in the upwind direction, as illustrated. (See Jane's Weapon Systems, 1987-88.) A durable but laboriously heavy fan can be made in a few' minutes using a 20 x 30-inch piece of 1/4 inch plywood nailed to a single 46-inch-long. 6.5. F: Providing Improved Ventalation and Light. A lock ( The pieces should he securely tied or taped together. Except for a relatively few sick people dependent on air conditioning, anyone could endure air that has an effective temperature only 2 degrees F higher than that of the air outdoors. There was a 10-inch space between the air pump and the trench floor, and the resulting flow of air maintained adequate ventilation in the cool of the desert night, when outdoor temperatures dropped as low as 450 F. Cool outdoor air flowed down into the entry and under the motionless air pump, replacing the body-warmed air inside the shelter. The Navy test mentioned above showed how much modern Americans who are accustomed to air conditioning could learn from jungle natives about keeping cool and healthy by skillfully using hot, humid, outdoor air. Size of the Storm Shelter. To learn how you can supply a shelter at low cost with air so well filtered that essentially all extremely small fallout particles and infective aerosols are removed, see Appendix E, How To Make a Homemade Plywood Double-Action Piston Pump and Filter. 3. (A dark-colored particle 40 microns in diameter is about as small a speck as most people can see with the naked eye.) This woman and her family had to relocate to Oklahoma for her husband’s job. These boards are connected at a point 17-1/2 inches from their lower ends, first with a single clinched nail, and then by being tied securely. To keep loose shielding earth from running under the car and into the trench, the upper edges of 5-foot-wide strips of polyethylene film first were attached with duct tape to the sides and ends of the car, about 2 feet above the ground. ° Provide occupants with adequate drinking water and salt. To fan air out through an air-exhaust opening, sit facing the opening with your elbows about 4 inches lower than the bottom of the opening. However, ventilation should not be restricted long enough to cause weaker occupants to be on the verge of collapse from overheating, or to result in headaches from exhaled carbon dioxide. 1. The most dangerous level is the Winter Storm Warning. After 1000 hours of operation during which it pumped air through a room at a rate of 4000 cubic feet per minute (4000 cfm), there were only minor tears in the plastic flaps. ° Headaches from the carbon monoxide produced by smoking. "14 An effective temperature 900 F is higher than the highest outdoor effective temperature during a heatwave in the South or in American deserts. Ch. Maintaining a storm shelter in preparation for a natural disaster may seem a bit alarmist to some, but if you have ever lived through a tornado, earthquake or tsunami, you understand the need for preparation. "PIPE FOR VENTILATION," which makes this very small shelter essentially dead-ended and thereby eliminates adequate ventilation in warm weather. 6.2. And in hot weather, when as much as 40 cfm per occupant is required, body-warmed shelter air is no lighter than the outdoor air. 6.3. VENTILATION/COOLING OF PERMANENT SHELTERS. Because the Soviets have deployed thousands of ICBMs with warheads of "only" 100 to 550 kilotons, Americans face increased dangers from very radioactive particles scavenged by rain-outs or snow-outs. forced the warm air out of the shelter room at ceiling height through the emergency crawlway-exhaust trench at the other end. ... Breathe. The pull-cord was attached to the pump frame below its hinged top and extended along one trench wall for the whole length of the shelter. When possible, enclosures are your best bet. By fanning vigorously, 500 to 600 cubic feet per minute have been forced through a small covered-trench shelter. ° Wear as few clothes as practical. The sections on the small 2-handled Directional Fan and the large 1-Man Fan will be the most useful to unprepared people. (Most houses will burn to the ground in less than two hours.). The stabilized clouds of such explosions would be mostly in the troposphere, and some of even the tiniest particles - those small enough to be breathed into one's lungs - would be promptly scavenged and deposited in scattered "hot spots." Vibrate the concrete throughout the pour to eliminate voids and air bubbles. Field tests have proved that average Americans can build the expedient air pump described in Appendix B in a few hours, with inexpensive materials found in most households. He carried the pump on top of his car to the shelter-building site. You need to be out of the way when lightning strikes and you also need to be out of the rain as much as possible. Smooth the concrete on top of the storm shelter with a steel float. B: How to Make and Use a Homemade Shelter-Ventilating Pump, App. MAINTAINING ENDURABLE SHELTER CONDITIONS IN HOT WEATHER. To know what you need to have, you should get a copy of the FEMA P-320 Publication. Then the pair of fanners should count 1, 2. :3 while they: 1. There are regulations and standards that you should follow when building a tornado shelter. A 1973 report by the Subcommittee on Fallout of the National Academy of Sciences on the radioiodine inhalation problem stated this conclusion: "The opinion of the Subcommittee is that inhalation is far less of a threat than ingestion [eating or drinking], and does not justify countermeasures such as filters in the ventilating systems of shelters."18. [Figure 20.] The 5 excellent Chinese fans each had a blade made of a piece of 3 mm (approx. Most basement shelters and many aboveground shelters also can be kept at livable temperatures in hot weather if the cooling methods listed below are ALL followed: ° Supply enough air to carry away all the shelter occupants' body heat without raising the "effective temperature ' of the air at the exhaust end of the shelter by more than 2 degrees F. The "effective temperature" of the air to which a person is exposed is equivalent to the temperature of air at 100% relative humidity that causes the same sensation of warmth or cold. Wrap the 30-inch width smoothly crosswise around the frame, after cutting 4 notches in the cloth's corners, so that the tied-together parts of the sticks will not he covered. Dr. Yin, who heads all Chinese civil defense research and development, went with his top ventilation and shelter design specialists to a furniture factory in Beijing. How does it lock? Read hazard mitigation best practices for examples of mitigation in action. Directional Fanning is the simplest way to force enough outdoor air through typical basement, trench, and other expedient shelters to maintain endurable conditions, even in extremely hot, humid weather. FEMA recommends that you make your storm shelter a minimum of 7 square feet per person for tornadoes. The Car-Over-Trench Shelter pictured in Fig. In cool weather, occupants body heat will warm the shelter air and make it lighter than the outdoor air. A blade of 4-inch plywood is too heavy. A storm shelter is a safe place that you can use to take refuge during a catastrophic storm event such as a tornado or a hurricane. One of the most important nuclear war survival skills people should learn is how to keep occupied shelters adequately ventilated in all seasons and cool enough for many days of occupancy in warm or hot weather. Pin or tape the cloth to make a smooth blade: finally sew securely. If you’re considering buying a storm shelter to protect your family, the employees at your small business, or the members of your community, you pr… [read more] You’re Always Safer in a Storm Shelter, Even During a Pandemic In occupancy tests of crowded shelters when the supply of outdoor air was hot and dry, shelter occupants have been surprised to find that they felt hottest at the air-exhaust end of their shelter, where the temperature reading was lower than at the air-intake end. The resultant large clouds of extremely small radioactive particles in the troposphere usually would be blown eastward, and resultant life-endangering "hot spots" from rain-outs and/or snow-outs could be scattered clear to the Atlantic coast. After this is completed, you have yourself a fully installed storm shelter. B. DIRECTIONAL FANNING TO LARGER SHELTERS VENTILATE AND COOL LARGER SHELTERS, To ventilate larger basements, big covered trenches, and other large shelters lacking adequate ventilation, use one or more large 1-man fans. Because of the worldwide extreme fear of radiation, civil defense specialists who prepare official self-help instructions for building shelters have made radiation protection their overriding objective. ° Keep pumping about 40 cfm of air per person through the shelter both day and night during hot weather, so that the occupants and the shelter itself will be cooled off at night. Consider adding a few extra air vents and doors so that proper airflow is maintained. As anticipated, so little air flowed through these essentially dead-ended test shelters that temperatures soon became unbearable. The walls, ceiling, and door of the shelter must withstand wind pressure and resist penetration by wind-borne objects and falling debris. 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